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This article provides a history of electron and laser beam welding, discusses the properties of electrons and photons used for welding, and contrasts electron and laser beam welding. It presents a comparison of the electron and laser beam welding processes. The article also illustrates constant power density boundaries, showing the relationship between the focused beam diameter and the absorbed beam power for approximate regions of keyhole-mode welding, conduction-mode welding, cutting, and drilling.

This article introduces the operating principles and modes of operation for high-vacuum (EBW-HV), Medium-vacuum (EBW-MV), and nonvacuum (EBW-NV) electron beam welding. Equipment, process sequence, part preparation,...

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