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Joining is key to the manufacture of large or complex devices or assemblies; construction of large and complex structures; and repair of parts, assemblies, or structures in service. This article describes the three forces for joining: physical, chemical, and mechanical. It provides an overview of the joining processes, namely, mechanical fastening, integral attachment, adhesive bonding, welding, brazing, and soldering. The article concludes with information on the various aspects of joint design and location that determine the selection of a suitable joining method.

This article overviews the classification of welding processes and the key process embodiments for joining by various fusion welding processes: fusion welding with chemical sources for heating; fusion welding with electrical energy sources, such as arc welding or resistance welding; and fusion welding with directed energy sources, such as laser welding, electron beam welding. The article reviews the different types of nonfusion welding processes, regardless of the particular energy source, which is usually mechanical but can be chemical, and related subprocesses of brazing and soldering.

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