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This article discusses the most common methods of melting steels, namely, electric arc and induction melting. It describes the classification of refractories by an index of the “basicity” of the slag formed on the steel surface. The article provides a discussion on the converter metallurgy, which includes melt refinement in argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) vessels and vacuum oxygen decarburization (VODC) in a converter vessel. It also discusses ladle metallurgy, which includes vacuum induction degassing, vacuum oxygen decarburization, and vacuum ladle degassing.

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