The International Committee of Foundry Technical Associations has identified seven basic categories of casting defects: metallic projections, cavities, discontinuities, defective surfaces, incomplete casting, incorrect dimension, and inclusions or structural anomalies. This article presents some of the common defects in each of the seven categories. It also discusses select case studies relevant to inclusions, cavities (gas porosity, shrinkage), and discontinuities (hot tearing, cold shut).
Rathindra DasGupta, Common Defects in Various Casting Processes, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 1192–1202, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005344
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