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This article provides a general introduction on casting processes and design techniques. It discusses the process steps and methods of the main categories of shape casting methods, namely, expendable molds with permanent patterns, expendable molds with expendable patterns, and metal or permanent mold processes. The article lists the general guidelines of geometry in casting design. It describes the three separate contractions that are a result of cooling: liquid-liquid contraction, solid-solid contraction, and liquid-solid contraction. Factors influencing the solidification sequence of simple shapes, such as T-sections, X-sections, and L-sections, are discussed. The article also presents an overview of geometric factors...

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