This article reviews the pattern materials used in investment casting, which can be loosely grouped into waxes and plastics. The patternmaking process, pattern tooling, and pattern and cluster assembly are described. The article also describes the manufacture of ceramic shell molds and cores, detailing the binders and other materials used, as well as the formulation and control of slurries. Methods for pattern removal, mold firing, melting, casting, postcasting treatment, and inspection are explained. After presenting design recommendations for investment castings, the article concludes with information on applications and special versions of the investment casting process.
Robert A. Horton, Investment Casting, Casting, Vol 15, ASM Handbook, Edited By Srinath Viswanathan, Diran Apelian, Raymond J. Donahue, Babu DasGupta, Michael Gywn, John L. Jorstad, Raymond W. Monroe, Mahi Sahoo, Thomas E. Prucha, Daniel Twarog, ASM International, 2008, p 646–661, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005255
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