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This article reviews the melt processing and casting of non-ferrous alloys, such as nickel alloys, titanium alloys, and lead alloys. It describes the lead refining steps, namely, copper drossing, softening, desilvering, zinc removal, bismuth removal, and final refining.

Dross, which is the oxide-rich surface that forms on melts due to exposure to air, is a term that is usually applied to nonferrous melts, specifically the lighter alloys such as aluminum or magnesium. This article describes dross formation and ways to reduce it, the economic implications of dross, and in-plant enhancement or recovery of dross. It discusses the influence of the melter type on dross generation and the influence of charge materials and operating practices on melt loss. Fluxing is a word applied in a broad sense to a number of melt-treating methods. The article also discusses the in-furnace treatment with chemical fluxes.

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