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Casting can be done with either expendable molds for one-time use or permanent molds for reuse many times. This article lists the various methods used to fabricate expendable molds from permanent patterns. The methods include molding of sand with clay, inorganic binders, or organic resins; shell molding of sand with a thin resin-bonded shell; no-bond vacuum molding of sand; plaster-mold casting; ceramic-mold casting; rammed graphite molding; and magnetic (no-bond) molding of ferrous shot. The article tabulates a general comparison of casting methods and discusses the basic requirements of foundry molds.

This article reviews the basic types of mold aggregates and bonding methods for expendable molds and coremaking. It provides an overview of mold media and the basic types of sands and their properties. The most significant clays used in green sand operations, such as bentonites, are discussed. The article describes the methods of sand bonding with inorganic compounds. It provides a description of resin-bonded sand systems: no-bake binder systems, heat-cured binder systems, and cold box binder systems. The article concludes with a discussion on the media used for expendable molds, namely, ceramic shells and rammed graphite, for casting reactive metals such as titanium or zirconium.

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