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This article discusses the categories and subcategories of shape casting processes. These include single-use processes such as sand, plaster, ceramic, and graphite molding; essentially unpressurized multiuse processes, such as permanent mold; and high-pressure metal mold methods, such as die casting, squeeze casting, and semisolid processing. The article contains tables that compare some of the typical capabilities of shape casting processes.

This article discusses the types of patterns used for a specific application such as loose patterns, match plate patterns, cope and drag patterns, and special patterns. It describes the principles of the patternmaking techniques used to make expendable molds and for metal casting processes such as die casting and permanent mold casting. The article reviews the pattern features and mold production considerations used in the pattern design, namely, parting line considerations, addition of gates and risers, core prints, and locating points. It examines the pattern allowances for ensuring a dimensionally correct final pattern. A variety of materials and advanced composite materials used in the manufacture of patterns are discussed. The article evaluates the factors influencing the selection of type of patterns for specific castings.

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