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Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is one of the tools available for understanding and predicting the performance of thermal-fluids systems. This article qualitatively describes the basic principles of CFD. The numerical methods, such as geometry description and discretization, used to solve the CFD equations are discussed. The article also demonstrates the application of CFD to a few casting problems.

This article examines the critical features of four key areas of modeling transport phenomena associated with casting processes. These include heat and species transport in a metal alloy, flow of the liquid metal, tracking of the free metal-gas surface, and inducement of metal flow via electromagnetic fields. Conservation equations that represent important physical phenomena during casting processes are presented. The article provides a discussion on how the physical phenomena can be solved. It provides information on a well-established array of general and specific computational tools that can be readily applied to modeling casting processes. The article also summarizes the key features of the conservation equations in these tools.

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