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This article introduces the fundamental concepts of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics in describing presolidification phenomena. For metallurgical systems, the most important thermodynamic variables are enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. A qualitative demonstration of the interrelationship between phase diagrams and thermodynamics is presented. The article discusses processes that generally limit the rates of chemical processes. These include nucleation of the product phase and interphase mass transport. The article provides a discussion on the dissolution of alloy with melting point lower than bath temperature and dissolution of alloy that is solid at bath temperatures.

This article addresses two issues on thermodynamics, namely, the calculation of solubility lines and the calculation of the activity of various components. It discusses alloying elements in terms of their influence on the activity of carbon. The article describes the desulfurization and deoxidation of cast iron and steel. It illustrates the thermodynamics of the iron-carbon system and the iron-silicon system. The article examines solubility and saturation degrees of carbon in multicomponent iron-carbon systems. One of the main applications of the thermodynamics of the iron-carbon system is the calculation of structure-composition correlations. The article concludes with information on the structural diagrams for cast iron: the Maurer diagram and the Laplanche diagram.

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