This article describes the structure of coatings produced by plasma spraying, vapor deposition, and electrodeposition processes. The main techniques used for microstructure assessment are introduced. The relationship between the microstructure and property is also discussed. The experimental techniques for microstructural characterization include metallographic technique, X-ray diffraction, electron, microscopies, and porosimetry.
S.J. Bull, Microstructural Characterization of Coatings and Thin Films, Surface Engineering, Vol 5, ASM Handbook, Edited By C.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, F.A. Smidt, Jr., ASM International, 1994, p 660–668, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
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