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Bioprinting has been advancing in the field of tissue engineering as the process for fabricating scaffolds, making use of additive manufacturing technologies. In situ bioprinting (also termed intraoperative bioprinting) is a promising solution to address the limitations of conventional bioprinting approaches. This article discusses the main approaches and technologies for in situ bioprinting. It provides a brief overview of the bioprinting pipeline, highlighting possible solutions to improve currently used approaches. Additionally, case studies of in situ bioprinting are provided and in situ bioprinting future perspectives are discussed.

The field of bioprinting is a subset of additive manufacturing (AM) that is rapidly expanding to meet the needs of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Bioprinting encompasses a broad spectrum of issues, from cell expansion and novel bioink development to cell/stem cell printing, from organoid-based tissue organization to bioprinting of human-scale tissue structures, and from building cell/tissue/organ-on-a-chip to biomanufacturing of multicellular engineered living systems. This article focuses on two challenges regarding bioprinting: bioinks and crosslinking. It describes the methods for characterizing the performance of bioink formulations and the effectiveness of crosslinking strategies. The topics covered include modalities of bioprinting, characteristics of bioink, rheological properties of bioink sols, rheological measurements, mathematical models of bioink rheology, postfabrication polymer network mechanics, mechanical properties of crosslinked bioinks, and printability of bioinks. Finally, specific strategies used for crosslinking bioinks, as well as some emerging strategies to further improve bioinks and their crosslinking, are summarized.

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