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Powder-bed fusion (PBF) is a group of additive manufacturing (AM) processes that includes selective laser sintering, selective laser melting, and electron beam melting. This article explains the processes and parameters of PBF systems that are used for biomedical applications. It also presents the desirable properties of biomedical devices and the advantages of using PBF systems for biomedical applications.

This article focuses on the directed-energy deposition (DED) additive manufacturing (AM) technique of biomedical alloys. First, it provides an overview of the DED process. This is followed by a section describing the design and development of the multiphysics computational modeling of the layer-by-layer fusion-based DED process. A brief overview of the primary governing equations, boundary conditions, and numerical methods prescribed for modeling laser-based metal AM is then presented. Next, the article discusses fundamental concepts related to laser surface melting and laser-assisted bioceramic coatings/composites on implant surfaces, with particular examples related to biomedical magnesium and titanium alloys. It then provides a review of the processes involved in DED of biomedical stainless steels, Co-Cr-Mo alloys, and biomedical titanium alloys. Further, the article covers novel applications of DED for titanium-base biomedical implants. It concludes with a section on the forecast of DED in biomedical applications.

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