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It is well established that solidification behavior in the fusion zone controls the size and shape of grains, the extent of segregation, and the distribution of inclusions and defects such as porosity and hot cracks. Since the properties and integrity of the weld metal depend on the solidification behavior and the resulting microstructural characteristics, understanding weld pool solidification behavior is essential. This article provides a general introduction of key welding variables including solidification of the weld metal or fusion zone and microstructure of the weld and heat-affected zone. It discusses the effects of welding on microstructure and the causes...

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