Low-pressure carburizing (LPC) is one of the most popular case-hardening processes and is applied to increase the fatigue limit of dynamically loaded components. It takes place in a pressure range between 5 and 15 mbar (4 and 11 torr) and at temperature range between 870 and 1050 deg C. The LPC process runs in two different types of equipment: single-chamber furnaces and treatment chambers. This article reviews the use of simulation software for prediction of carbon profiles and typical quality control procedures. It describes the physical principles and typical applications of LPC.
Volker Heuer, Low-Pressure Carburizing, Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes, Vol 4A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Jon L. Dossett, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2013, p 581–590, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005813
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