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Carburization is the process of intentionally increasing the carbon content of a steel surface so that a hardened case can be produced by martensitic transformation during quenching. Like carburizing, carbonitriding involves heating above the upper critical temperature to austenitize the steel. This article introduces the fundamentals, types, advantages and limitations, and the complications of various forms of carburizing, namely, pack carburizing, liquid carburizing or salt bath carburizing, gas carburizing, and low-pressure (vacuum) carburizing. The related process of carbonitriding is also briefly described in the article.

This article presents the different hardness test methods used to measure the effectiveness...

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