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Surface hardening improves the wear resistance of steel parts. This article focuses exclusively on the methods that involve surface and subsurface modification without any intentional buildup or increase in part dimensions. These include diffusion methods, such as carburizing, nitriding, carbonitriding, and austenitic and ferritic nitrocarburizing, as well as selective-hardening methods, such as laser transformation hardening, electron beam hardening, ion implantation, selective carburizing, and surface hardening with arc lamps. The article also discusses the factors affecting the choice of these surface-hardening methods.

A wide variety of stop-off technologies for heat treatment are used to selectively prevent the diffusion of...

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