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Failure analysis is an investigative process in which the visual observations of features present on a failed component and the surrounding environment are essential in determining the root cause of a failure. This article reviews the basic photographic principles and techniques that are applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. It discusses the processes involved in visual examination, field photographic documentation, and laboratory photographic documentation of failed components. The article describes the operating principles of each part of a professional digital camera. It covers basic photographic principles and manipulation of settings that assist in...

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