A 44.5 mm (1.75 in.) diam type 321 stainless steel seamless tube in a power-generating turbine failed after 19,000 h in service. The tube was used to carry a mixture of approximately 25% steam and 75% hot air. Three fractured pieces and part of the tube containing the mating fracture surface were examined. Both fractographic and metallographic features revealed that the failure was by thermal fatigue caused by the presence of biaxial thermal stresses on the inner surface of the tube. It was recommended that the steam and air be thoroughly mixed prior to entering the tube to decrease the temperature fluctuations of the inner surface.
Syavash Ensha, Thermal Fatigue of an Austenitic Stainless Steel Tube, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 1, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1992, p 363–365, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001110
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