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Steel springs are made in many types, shapes, and sizes, ranging from delicate hairsprings for instrument meters to massive buffer springs for railroad equipment. The primary focus of this article is small steel springs that are cold wound from wire. Wire springs are of four types: compression springs (including die springs), extension springs, torsion springs, and wire forms. Chemical composition, mechanical properties, surface quality, availability, and cost are the principal factors to be considered in selecting steel for springs. Both carbon and alloy steels are used extensively. The three types of wire used in the greatest number of applications...

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