Welcome to the 2021 edition of ASM Handbook, Volume 11A, Analysis and Prevention of Component and Equipment Failures.
Purpose and Scope
Volume 11A is intended to be used in conjunction with ASM Handbook, Volume 11, Failure Analysis and Prevention. As stated in the title, the focus of this Volume is components and equipment, beginning with the design process and including life assessment, manufacturing, and maintenance. Various components and structures often encountered or otherwise of interest are addressed in separate articles. References and sources of further information are provided throughout.
This Volume builds on a more than 70-year history of ASM International’s leadership in failure analysis. In 1948, ASM International published a one-volume Metals Handbook, which included a section from the Subcommittee on Service Failures. Separate volumes on failure analysis were published in 1975 and again in 1986. It was recognized that additional information was needed on the overall process and tools of failure analysis, and this need was addressed with the 2002 Volume 11, which then was expanded, revised, and updated in early 2021.
As with all the previous editions, the goal of the editors and authors is to provide the “go-to” reference for those who are confronted with the failure of a machine or component. And we recognize that our audience wishes to both understand the causes of failures and prevent future occurrences. If the root, or underlying, cause is not correctly identified, then the chances of remediation and prevention will be diminished.
While the subject of Volumes 11 and 11A is typically referred to as “failure analysis,” we recognize this term is something of a misnomer. Machines and components, and the materials from which they are constructed, do not really “fail” in the way most of us understand the term. Materials respond to the elements in their environments in ways that scientists and engineers strive to understand. Characterization of the environment over time may include determining mechanical loads, the possible presence of aggressive chemicals, temperature, and a variety of other factors.
Thus, the “failure” turns out to be a failure to meet expectations. And materials engineers and information are an important part of the investigation, since there are usually questions regarding whether the materials met specifications and were appropriate for the environment. Careful study of the materials and failed components can also reveal much regarding the circumstances of a particular event.
Experienced analysts are often frustrated when, despite extensive engineering research, investigations, and reports, the same types of failures occur again and again. Thus, the analyst should strive to uncover the underlying, or root, cause of the failure. The fact that a specific component appears to have failed in some way does not automatically mean that the component itself is defective. The problem may lie in the way the component was used, inspected, or maintained. If it is truly defective, then the analysis should determine whether the defect originates in the design, manufacture (fabrication and assembly), materials selection/processing, or an unanticipated service environment.
A root-cause investigation attempts to answer such questions as:
Was the operating environment properly anticipated in the design?
Did the manufacturing process meet specifications? If not, why not?
Were maintenance and inspections performed properly?
Was the machine or component at issue used properly? If not, did the user or operator receive proper instruction and training?
Again, Volumes 11 and 11A of ASM Handbook provide a starting point for investigation into all the aforementioned areas and more. Because the results of a failure investigation are often painstakingly scrutinized by multiple parties, and different interpretations of the evidence are possible, it is important to follow a scientific approach. Consider alternate explanations for the evidence and test your hypotheses to determine which one best explains the evidence. Do NOT make the mistake of hastily accepting the first conclusion that arises.
Because of the potential for a degree of subjectivity, controversy is, perhaps, inherent in the very nature of failure analysis. If anything, that is even truer today when real or perceived failures are the subject of litigation. There can be differences of opinion among failure analysts regarding some issues. It is up to the reader to determine whether the information presented here is applicable and helpful in a particular situation. More experienced analysts should be consulted if there is any doubt. The ASM Handbook series should be used with care and should not be the sole source of information when critical decisions are to be made. While it is our goal that ASM International’s failure analysis handbooks should be the first resource you consult when confronted with a broken or otherwise failed part, they should not be your only resource. The reader is encouraged to pursue additional sources to understand the function and history of the component, machine, or system that is under investigation.
As noted previously, Volume 11A includes specific considerations associated with common manufacturing processes and types of components. Some information from previous handbooks is still valid and has been included herein after careful review by the editors. Twelve articles are totally new.
In addition to this Volume, the ASM Handbook series currently comprises 38 other Volumes, any of which may contain information relevant to a particular investigation. Volume 11A may be just a starting point for your investigation. For example, you may complete a given investigation by researching:
Specific failure mechanisms:
Specific manufacturing processes:
Machining (ASM HandbookVolume 16)
Additive manufacturing (ASM HandbookVolume 24)
Besides the ASM Handbook series, much additional useful information is available in other reference books from ASM International, industry standards, manufacturers’ literature, and similar references. Whatever source is utilized, given the critical nature of failure analysis, it is most important that the information be reliable and authoritative.
As with all Volumes of the ASM Handbook series, Volume 11A reflects the efforts of many people. Except for the staff of ASM International, all participants are volunteers. Most of the volunteers are fully employed, and many contributed their personal time to the project. Neither they nor their employers receive any monetary compensation for their efforts. They participated for the satisfaction that accrues from being able to share what they have learned, prevent failures, and contribute to safer, more reliable products.
The names of the authors, editors, reviewers, and ASM International staff are acknowledged individually elsewhere in this Volume and are too numerous to list here. However, ASM International staff members Amy Nolan and Steven Lampman deserve special mention for their unflagging commitment to this project.
It has been most enjoyable and professionally rewarding to work with all who were involved. On behalf of ASM International and the readers of this Volume, we express our appreciation to all for the time and effort expended and for their willingness to share their knowledge and lessons derived from their experience. Many of the contributors have established national and international reputations in their respective fields. More than any words of appreciation in a preface such as this, however, it is our hope that the Volume itself will be a most fitting tribute to all participants, both now and well into the future.
Preface, Analysis and Prevention of Component and Equipment Failures, Vol 11A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Brett A. Miller, Roch J. Shipley, Ronald J. Parrington, Daniel P. Dennies, ASM International, 2021
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