This article discusses failure mechanisms in tool and die materials that are very important to nearly all manufacturing processes. It is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used in cold working and hot working applications. The processes involved in the analysis of tool and die failures are also covered. In addition, the article focuses on a number of factors that are responsible for tool and die failures, including mechanical design, grade selection, steel quality, machining processes, heat treatment operation, and tool and die setup.
George F. Vander Voort, Failures of Tools and Dies, Analysis and Prevention of Component and Equipment Failures, Vol 11A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Brett A. Miller, Roch J. Shipley, Ronald J. Parrington, Daniel P. Dennies, ASM International, 2021, p 715–735, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
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