This article provides an in-depth review of thermocouples and the metals from which they are made. It explains how dissimilar metal conductors in contact at opposite ends can generate an electromotive force if the junctions are heated or cooled to different temperatures. The article discusses thermocouple circuits and instrumentation, calibration methods, insulation requirements, operating ranges, measurement errors, and maintenance procedures. It also provides property data and emf curves for common metals and thermocouple types, and contains information on color coding used around the world.
T.P. Wang, Thermocouple Materials, Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, Vol 2, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 869–888, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001098
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