Low-expansion alloys are characterized by their dimensional stability, suiting them for applications such as geodetic tape, bimetal strip, glass-to-metal seals, and electronic components. This article describes the composition of such alloys along with related properties and behaviors. It explains how humidity and other factors, such as heat treating and cold drawing, influence thermal expansion rates. It also provides machining information on some of the more common low-expansion alloys, and reviews special alloy types including iron-cobalt-chromium alloys, hardenable alloys, and high-strength controlled-expansion alloys.
Earl L. Frantz, Low-Expansion Alloys, Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, Vol 2, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 889–896, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001099
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