This article reviews the history of superconductivity from its discovery in the early 1900s to the renewed interest in the mid-1980s spurred by the development of high-temperature superconducting devices. It identifies some of the materials in which superconductivity has been observed, including metals and alloys, compounds, and oxides, and discusses their properties as well as potential applications. The article also explains how various superconducting materials are produced and provides a foundation for understanding the basic operating principles.
Superconductivity has been found in a wide range of materials, including pure metals, alloys, compounds, oxides, and organic materials. Providing information on the basic principles, this article discusses the theoretical background, types of superconductors, and critical parameters of superconductivity. It discusses the magnetic properties of selected superconductors and types of stabilization, including cryogenic stability, adiabatic stability, and dynamic stability. The article also focuses on alternating current losses in superconductors, including hysteresis loss, penetration loss, eddy current loss, and radio frequency loss. Furthermore, the article describes the flux pinning phenomenon and Josephson effects.