Failure Analysis and Prevention (2021 Edition)
Fracture Appearance and Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture
Engineering component and structure failures manifest through many mechanisms but are most often associated with fracture in one or more forms. This article introduces the subject of fractography and aspects of how it is used in failure analysis. The basic types of fracture processes (ductile, brittle, fatigue, and creep) are described briefly, principally in terms of fracture appearances. A description of the surface, structure, and behavior of each fracture process is also included. The article provides a framework from which a prospective analyst can begin to study the fracture of a component of interest in a failure investigation. Details on the mechanisms of deformation, brittle transgranular fracture, intergranular fracture, fatigue fracture, and environmentally affected fracture are also provided.
M.E. Stevenson, P.D. Umberger, S.F. Uchneat, Fracture Appearance and Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture, Failure Analysis and Prevention, Vol 11, 2021 ed., ASM Handbook, Edited By Brett A. Miller, Roch J. Shipley, Ronald J. Parrington, Daniel P. Dennies, ASM International, 2021, p 273–303, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
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New Handbook: Volume 11B
Volume 11B serves as a reference and guide to help engineers determine the causes of failure in plastic components and make corrective adjustments through design and manufacturing modifications.