This chapter discusses the processes of isothermal and hot-die forging and their use in producing aerospace components. It explains how isothermal forging was developed to provide a near-net shape component geometry and well-controlled microstructures and properties with accurate control of the working temperature and strain rate. It describes the materials typically used as well as equipment and tooling, die heating procedures, part separation techniques, and postforging heat treatment.
Manas Shirgaokar, Gangshu Shen, Isothermal and Hot-Die Forging, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 257–275, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040257
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