Prior to forging, it is often necessary to preform billet stock to achieve adequate material distribution. This chapter discusses the equipment used for such operations, including transverse rolling machines, electric upsetters, ring-rolling mills, horizontal presses, and rotary (orbital) and radial forging machines. It describes their basic operating principles as well as advantages and disadvantages.
Pinak Barve, Special Machines for Forging, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 141–150, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040141
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