Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications
There are numerous approximate methods, both analytical and numerical, for analyzing forging processes. None are perfect because of the assumptions made to simplify the mathematical approach, but all have merit. This chapter discusses the slab, upperbound, and finite element methods, covering basic principles, implementation, and advantages and disadvantages in various applications.
Manas Shirgaokar, Methods of Analysis for Forging Operations, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 91–105, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
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