Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications
Chapter 4: Flow Stress and Forgeability
This chapter explains how to determine flow stress and forgeability using data from tensile tests, compression tests, ring tests, and torsion tests. It describes sample preparation, tooling and equipment, test procedures, error sources, and data plotting techniques. It also provides a significant amount of experimentally derived flow stress data, including K and n values for steel, copper, and aluminum alloys, C and m values (at various temperatures) for steel, aluminum, copper, titanium, and other alloys, and average flow stress for several alloys determined by compression testing.
Manas Shirgaokar, Flow Stress and Forgeability, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 25–49, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040025
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