Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications
This chapter explains that the key to forging is understanding and controlling metal flow and influential factors such as tool geometry, the mechanics of interface friction, material characteristics, and thermal conditions in the deformation zone. It also reviews common forging processes, including closed-die forging, extrusion, electrical upsetting, radial forging, hobbing, isothermal forging, open-die forging, orbital forging, and coining.
Manas Shirgaokar, Forging Processes: Variables and Descriptions, Cold and Hot Forging: Fundamentals and Applications, Edited By Taylan Altan, Gracious Ngaile, Gangshu Shen, ASM International, 2005, p 7–15, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
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