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This article covers in-line process monitoring of the metal additive manufacturing (AM) methods of laser and electron beam (e-beam) powder-bed fusion (PBF) and directed-energy deposition (DED). It focuses on methods that monitor the component directly throughout the build process. This article is organized by the type of AM process and by the physics of the monitoring method. The discussion covers two types of monitoring possible with the PBF process: monitoring the area of the powder bed and component and monitoring the melt pool created by the laser or e-beam. Methods for layer monitoring include optical and thermal methods that...

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