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This new ASM Handbook, Volume 4C, Induction Heating and Heat Treatment, is an important expansion of the ASM Handbook on heat treating by going beyond the focus on furnace heat treating in the previous ASM Handbook, Volume 4, Heat Treating. Heating by electromagnetic induction is a topic of major technological significance that continues to grow at accelerated rates in a variety of thermal applications such as hardening, tempering, stress relieving, brazing, soldering, melting, as well as preheating ferrous and nonferrous metallic alloys prior to warm and hot working. As such, this ASM Handbook Volume reflects an ambitious undertaking to compile an all-new, comprehensive resource on induction thermal processes in the twenty-first century.

Continuing in the tradition of the ASM Handbook series, this Volume provides a unique combination of practical knowledge grasping ready-to-use diagrams, technical procedures, guidelines, and good practices with advanced theoretical knowledge emphasizing specifics of induction processes compared to alternative technologies. Beginning with reviewing electrical, electromagnetic, heat transfer and material science fundamentals related to induction heating, along with coverage critical facets associated with this technology such as:

  • Nonequilibrium nature of phase transformation and other metallurgical subtleties related to the specifics of induction hardening, tempering, stress relieving, heating prior to hot working and melting.

  • Induction hardening of critical components, including gears, axle shafts, camshafts, crankshafts, and other components used in automotive and off-road machinery, aeronautic and aerospace engineering, farming, appliance, oil and gas industries.

  • Review of ASTM and SAE standards and guidelines in proper measuring of hardness case depth and heat affected zone. Pattern specification as well as issues and complications related to different hardness measuring techniques. Destructive and nondestructive testing.

  • Selection of critical process parameters and inductor styles, heat pattern control, the use of magnetic flux concentrators, quench design subtleties as well as a review and explanation of common misconceptions and erroneous assumptions.

  • Formation of residual and transient stresses and their impact on a performance of heat treated components.

  • Temperature requirements for heating carbon steels, alloy steels, super alloys, titanium, aluminum and copper alloys and other materials prior to hot and warm working. Novel technological developments in heating billets, bars, tubes, rods and other metallic workpieces.

  • Optimization procedures and strategies in obtaining optimal process control algorithms based on various technological criteria, real-life constrains and cost functions (e.g., maximizing throughput and temperature uniformity, energy effectiveness, minimizing required shop floor space and metal loss, etc.). Principles of multiobjective optimization of induction heating devices.

  • Failure analysis of induction heat treated components and comprehensive review of defects and abnormal characteristics.

  • Good practices in designing and fabricating long-lasting induction coils and ways to avoid their premature failures.

  • Special applications of electromagnetic induction, including melting glasses and oxides, optical fiber draw, nanoparticle heating and hyperthermia applications.

  • Design principles and operation specifics of transistorized and thyristorized power supplies for induction heating needs.

  • Modern computer modeling and specifics of simulation of induction thermal processes.

This Volume also contains numerous case studies that illustrate the challenges and solutions in obtaining required thermal conditions with a workpiece. Practitioners, students, engineers, and scientists are always curious to find simple solutions for typical induction heating problems that they encounter every day. This book provides them with the knowledge to clearly understand the various interrelated physical phenomena that might be responsible for what is happening in real-life.

An appreciable amount of material is devoted to practical aspects, including review of standard and customized induction equipment. Special attention is paid to describing quality assurance, process monitoring, maintenance and safety procedures, energy and environmental aspects, including control of magnetic field exposure and review of international standards and regulations. Numerous articles, conference proceedings, and various technical books on induction heating and heat treating have been published by ASM International over the years, but much of the content in this Volume has never been published before.

The preparation of this tome was a tremendous task. Being editors, we are deeply indebted to all authors for their support, contribution and devotion; without them the project of this magnitude would not have been possible. Special thanks to Steve Lampman and the ASM staff. On many occasions, authors expressed to us their sincere gratitude for highly professional editing work and unending patience of ASM staff who are vital members of the team.

Very special thanks are given to our families and families of all contributors; this project would never have been completed without their sacrifices, understanding and support.

Valery Rudnev
George E. Totten

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