Heat Treating of Irons and Steels
Hardenable steels with high-alloy content includes a family of nickel-cobalt steels with high strength and high toughness. This article describes various heat treatments, namely, normalizing, annealing, hardening, tempering, stress relieving, overaging, quenching, refrigeration, and straightening treatment, applied to HP9-4-20, HP9-4-25, HP9-4-30, and HP9-4-45 steels. These steels have high fracture toughness when heat treated to very high strength levels. The article also describes heat treatments applied to other alloys such as AF 1410, AerMet 100, AerMet 310, and AerMet 340, which provide a good combination of high strength and toughness that make them attractive for aerospace application. It also presents tables that provide information on the effect of aging temperatures and heat treatment on mechanical properties and impact energy of these steels.