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Powder metallurgy (PM) processes include press and sinter hardening, metal injection molding, powder forging, hot isostatic pressing, powder rolling, and spray forming. This article provides an overview of PM processing methods and general considerations of heat treatment of PM parts that are case-hardened to obtain higher hardness, wear, fatigue, and impact properties. It describes the effects of porosity on heat treatment, alloy content on PM hardenability, and starting material on homogenization of PM steels. The article describes the properties, following heat treatment, of low-alloy steels tempered at 175 °C for one hour, and lists recommended quench and temper parameters to achieve good wear resistance and core strength based on different ranges of porosity.

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Joseph W. Newkirk, Heat Treatment of Powder Metallurgy Steels, Heat Treating of Irons and Steels, Vol 4D, ASM Handbook, Edited By Jon L. Dossett, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2014, p 253–273,

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