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Distortion, encompassing all irreversible dimensional changes, is of two main types: size distortion and shape distortion. This article provides an overview of the nature and causes of distortion and discusses the process and material aspects of distortion specific to steels and tool steels. It also discusses the prediction of distortion and residual stresses by heat treatment simulation for optimizing production processes. The advantages and limitations of heat treatment simulation are also described.

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Reinhold Schneider, Rafael Mesquita, Wolfgang Schützenhöfer, 2014. "Distortion in Tool Steels", Heat Treating of Irons and Steels, Jon L. Dossett, George E. Totten

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