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The design of a tool-steel part directly affects the susceptibility to shape distortion on heating and cooling. This article provides information on the selection of chemical composition and the effect of composition on size distortion. It explains the various factors considered to control distortion in tools steels, namely, design, initial condition, machining procedure, and heat treatment. Distortion can occur both during and after heat treatment. The article discusses the chief ways to precisely control the extent of distortion by heat treating and auxiliary mechanical methods. Stabilizing treatments, namely, stabilizing by tempering and stabilizing by cold treatment are used to minimize dimensional changes that occur following heat treatment.

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Control of Distortion in Tool Steels, Heat Treating of Irons and Steels, Vol 4D, ASM Handbook, Edited By Jon L. Dossett, George E. Totten, ASM International, 2014, p 312–319,

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