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Gray irons are a group of cast irons that form flake graphite during solidification, in contrast to the spheroidal graphite morphology of ductile irons. The heat treatment of gray irons can considerably alter the matrix microstructure with little or no effect on the size and shape of the graphite achieved during casting. This article provides a detailed account of classes of gray iron, and heat treating methods of gray irons with examples. These methods include stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, transformation hardening, austenitizing, quenching, austempering, martempering, flame hardening, induction hardening, and nitriding.

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