Package Failure Analysis: Flow and Technique
As semiconductor feature sizes have shrunk, the technology needed to encapsulate modern integrated circuits has expanded. Due to the various industry changes, package failure analyses are becoming much more challenging; a systematic approach is therefore critical. This article proposes a package failure analysis flow for analyzing open and short failures. The flow begins with a review of data on how the device failed and how it was processed. Next, non-destructive techniques are performed to document the condition of the as-received units. The techniques discussed are external optical inspection, X-ray inspection, scanning acoustic microscopy, infrared (IR) microscopy, and electrical verification. The article discusses various fault isolation techniques to tackle the wide array of failure signatures, namely IR lock-in thermography, magnetic current imaging, time domain reflectometry, and electro-optical terahertz pulse reflectometry. The final step is the step-by-step inspection and deprocessing stage that begins once the defect has been imaged.