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Temperature control in heat treating is of paramount importance in maintaining the quality and achieving the desired metallurgical results. This article provides a detailed account of the factors affecting temperature control in heat treating furnaces, with information on temperature control systems, including contact sensors, noncontact sensors, controllers, energy-flow regulators, measurement instruments, and set-point programmers. Common contact sensors include temperature scales, thermocouples, and resistance temperature detectors, whereas optical pyrometers and on-line radiation thermometers fall under the noncontact type. The article describes two types of instrumentation used in heat treating: field test instruments for temperature-uniformity surveys and system-accuracy tests; and controlling, monitoring, and recording instruments for digital instrumentation.

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