X-ray topography is a technique that comprises topography and x-ray diffraction. This article provides a description of the kinematical theory and the dynamical theory of diffraction. It provides useful information on the configurations of reflection and transmission topography. The article explains various topographic methods, namely, divergent beam method, polycrystal rocking curve analysis, line broadening analysis, microbeam method, and polycrystal scattering topography, as well as their instrumentation. It also describes the applications of x-ray topography.