Field ion microscopy (FIM) can be used to study the three-dimensional structure of materials, such as metals and semiconductors, because successive atom layers can be ionized and removed from the surface by field evaporation. The ions removed from the surface by field evaporation can be analyzed chemically by coupling to the microscope a time-of-flight mass spectrometer of single-particle sensitivity, known as the atom probe (AP). This article describes the principles, sample preparation, and quantitative analysis of FIM. It also provides information on the principles, instrument design and operation, mass spectra and their interpretation, and applications of AP microanalysis.
Low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) is used extensively to analyze solid surfaces. The LEISS process relies on binary elastic collisions between an incident ion beam and the atoms in a sample to obtain information on the surface atoms. The velocity of the scattered ions is used to determine the mass of the atoms that are struck. This article introduces LEISS and its principles. It describes the use of LEISS spectra in qualitative and quantitative analyses, and reviews the instrumentation and applications of LEISS.