This article provides an introduction to extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). It describes the fundamentals of EXAFS with an emphasis on the physical mechanism, the single-scattering approximation, and multiple-scattering effects. The article discusses the use of synchrotron radiation as the x-ray source for EXAFS experiments. It also describes the typical EXAFS data analysis of pure nickel at 90 K, and explains the near-edge structure analysis of vanadium. The article presents a discussion on the unique features and applications of EXAFS.