This article provides an introduction to x-ray spectrometry, and discusses the role of electromagnetic radiation, x-ray emission, and x-ray absorption. It focuses on the instrumentation of wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometers, and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometers (EDS) that comprise x-ray tubes, the analyzing system, and detectors. The fundamentals of EDS operation are described. The article also provides useful information on preparation of various samples, explaining the qualitative and quantitative analyses of EDS. It reviews the applications of the x-ray spectrometry.