In x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, the strain in the crystal lattice is measured, and the residual stress producing the strain is calculated, assuming a linear elastic distortion of the crystal lattice. This article provides a detailed account of the plane stress elastic model, and describes the most common methods of x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, namely, single-angle and two angle techniques. It elaborates the major steps involved in x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, explaining the possible sources of error in stress measurement. The article also outlines the applications of x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement with examples.
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