This article introduces the principles of Raman spectroscopy and the representative materials characterization applications to which Raman spectroscopy has been applied. It includes a discussion of light-scattering fundamentals and a description of the experimental aspects of the technique. Emphasis has been placed on the different instrument approaches that have been developed for performing Raman analyses on various materials. The applications presented in the article reflect the breadth of materials characterization uses for Raman spectroscopy and highlight the analysis of bulk material and of surface and near-surface species.
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