X-ray diffraction techniques are useful for characterizing crystalline materials, such as metals, intermetallics, ceramics, minerals, polymers, plastics, and other inorganic or organic compounds. This article discusses the theory of x-rays and how they are generated and detected. It also describes the crystalline nature of certain materials and how the geometry of a unit cell, and hence crystal lattice, affects the direction and intensity of diffracted x-ray beams. The article concludes with several application examples involving measurements on single and polycrystalline materials.
Deane K. Smith, Introduction to Diffraction Methods, Materials Characterization, Vol 10, Edited By Ruth E. Whan, ASM International, 1986, p 325–332, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
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