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This article describes the various steps involved in image analysis, including sample selection and preparation, image preprocessing, measurement, and data analysis and output. It reviews various types of image analyzers and explains how operator bias and poor sample selection and preparation practices can lead to measurement error. It also examines several applications, illustrating how microstructural measurements can be used to assess quality control and better understand how processing changes affect microstructure and, in turn, material properties and behavior.

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George F. Vander Voort, Image Analysis, Materials Characterization, Vol 10, Edited By Ruth E. Whan, ASM International, 1986, p 309–322,

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