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Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) makes it possible to combine structural and compositional analysis in one operation. This article describes the basic concepts of microanalysis and the processing of EPMA that involves the measurement of the characteristic X-rays emitted from a microscopic part of a solid specimen bombarded by a beam of accelerated electrons. It provides information on the various aspects of energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS), and elucidates the qualitative analysis of the major constituents of EDS and WDS. The article includes information on the analog and digital compositional mapping of elemental distribution, and describes the strengths and weaknesses of WDS and EDS spectrometers in X-ray mapping. It also outlines the application of EPMA for solving various problems in materials science.

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Kurt F.J. Heinrich, Dale E. Newbury, Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis, Materials Characterization, Vol 10, Edited By Ruth E. Whan, ASM International, 1986, p 516–535,

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